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The French 7.5mm MAS Mle 1949/56 Rifle: Its History and a Review

The MAS Mle 1949/56 in 7.5mm was France's first truly successful semi-auto battle rifle and Royal Tiger Imports has a number available!

The French 7.5mm MAS Mle 1949/56 Rifle: Its History and a Review

Zaire, 1978. Foreign Legionnaires advancing on the Katangnese city of Kolwezi to rescue Europeans from rebels.

Towards the end of the 19th century, the French army realized that their Fusil d’Infanterie Modèle 1886/93 (Lebel) and its rimmed 8mm balle D cartridge had been rendered obsolete by developments in other nations, it was decided to embark upon a secret, long term plan that would result in French soldiers being armed with weapons superior to any likely enemy (a.k.a. Germany). It was decided that this could best be accomplished by developing a semiautomatic rifle firing a rimless cartridge.

French soldier displays Modele 1949/56 Rifle
A young French soldier displays his Modèle 1949/56 rifle.

According to Jean Huon’s excellent book, Proud Promise — French Autoloading Rifles 1898–­1979, by 1894 several small bore, high performance, rimless cartridges had been developed by government and private facilities.

Paul Scarlata displays a Modele 1949/56 Rifle
A not quite as young gun magazine writer displays a Modèle 1949/56 rifle.

Highly secretive trials began in 1898 and continued until 1914 and a series of rifles were tested. None of them proved capable of satisfying the myriad conditions insisted upon by the officers of the Musketry School at Chalons-sur-Marne.

The Fusil Meunier STA A6
The Fusil Meunier STA A6 was the first semiauto rifle approved by the French army. It was a failure and quickly discarded.

About the Author: Paul Scarlata began writing articles for various gun magazines in the 1990s. Over the years he has contributed to firearms and military history publications in the U.S. and a number of foreign countries, has had three books on military firearms published and just finished writing a fourth. He became a regular contributor to Shotgun News, forerunner of the Firearms News, in 2010, eventually becoming a staff member where he specializes writing about military small arms from 1850s to present day. His wife Becky, an excellent photographer, has been a major plus to "their" careers. If you have any thoughts or comments on this article, we’d love to hear them. Email us at FirearmsNews@OutdoorSG.com.

A semiauto rifle designed by M. Etienne Meunier, Fusil Meunier STA A6, chambered for a rimless 7mm cartridge was tentatively adopted in 1910, but only about 1,000 were manufactured.1 Field trials showed them incapable of standing up to the rigors of combat and French soldiers fought WWI with Lebels supplemented with Berthier carbines and rifles.2


The Fusil Automatique Modèle 1917
The Fusil Automatique Modèle 1917 was the first semiautomatic rifle to see significant military service. (RIA)

In 1917, the French high command approved the issue of the Fusil automatique Modèle 1917, a gas operated rifle chambered for the 8mm balle D cartridge. It was developed by the design team of Monsieurs Chauchat, Sutter, and Ribeyrolles who were “responsible” for the, much despised, Fusil Mitrailleur Modèle 1916 CSRG light machine gun (the “Chauchat”).


The 7,5mm balle Modèle 1929 C
The 7,5mm balle Modèle 1929 C was the French army’s standard rifle cartridge from 1929 until the 1970s.

The Fusil automatique Modèle 1917 was the first widely issued semiauto military rifle. Despite continuing problems it had, the improved Mosqueton automatique Modèle 1918, continued to see limited service until the 1930s.

The Fusil Mitrailleur Modèle 1924- 29
The Fusil Mitrailleur Modèle 1924- 29 was the first weapon to use the new 7,5mm balle Modèle 1929 C. (Peter Kokalis photo)

In the post-war years, trials of semiautomatic rifles continued but at a slower pace. In 1921, the army published a list of specifications any rifles submitted for trials must meet and these remained unchanged until the outbreak of WWII.3

Rossignol direct impingement gas system
The Rossignol direct impingement gas system direct powder gases directly to the front of the bolt carrier pushing it to the rear.

Beginning in 1921, Manufacture Nationale d’Armes de Ste. Etienne (MAS) submitted rifles, MAS 1918/21, MAS 1922, MAS 1922/26, MAS 1928 and MAS 1928/31; Manufacture Nationale d’Armes de Châtellerault (MAC) submitted their MAC 1924 and MAC 1929; while Manufacture Nationale d’Armes de Tulle (MAT) submitted the MAT 1926, MAT 1929 and MAT 1931. All were gas operated and featured five round, charger (stripper clip) loaded magazines. None were found acceptable.4

Fusil Modèle 1936
The Fusil Modèle 1936 was the last purposefully designed bolt action military rifle. (RIA)

In the meantime, the cartridge question was solved in 1929. A new light machine gun, the Fusil Mitrailleur Modèle 1924, chambered for a 7,5mm rimless cartridge with a case 58mm in length was adopted.




Markings

The inevitable accidents that occurred when plentiful World War I surplus 7,9x57 ammunition was accidently fired in the new machine guns led to the cartridge being modified by shortening the case by 4mm. The resulting round was adopted as the 7,5mm balle Modèle 1929 C whose 140-grain spitzer bullet achieved a muzzle velocity of 2,600 fps.

The Fusil Automatique Modèle 1944
The Fusil Automatique Modèle 1944 aped the appearance of the Modèle 1936. Note the ten round box magazine, aperture rear sight and large, nylon bolt handle. (Rock Island Auction Co.)

But the French army found certain features of the different test rifles “interesting.” Both the MAS 28 and MAC 1929 used simple tilting bolts to lock the action; the MAS 1928/31’s direct impingement gas operation got high points, while the MAT 1931’s two-piece stock found favor.

Left and Right Angle Views

The gas impingement system was first used on the Rossignol B-series of rifles entered in earlier French trials. It did away with gas pistons and instead powder gases are fed from the barrel through a gas tube directly to the front face of the bolt carrier. The bolt carrier is pushed to the rear, camming the tilting bolt unlocking it from a slot in the receiver floor and carrying it to the rear extracting and ejecting the spent cartridge case. The recoil spring then pulls the bolt forward, picking up the next round from the magazine and chambering it as the bolt goes into battery. It had fewer parts and was simpler to maintain and service.

Recommended


The Fusil Modèle 44 Type A
The Fusil Modèle 44 Type A featured a grenade launch-ing sight on the left side of the upper band.

Further trials resulted in a “composite” rifle that combined the direct impingement gas system and tilting, rear locking bolt of the MAS 1928/31, the removable bolt cover and two-piece stock of the MAT 1931, and the rod bayonet of the bolt action Fusil Modèle 1936. The resulting rifle, the Fusil automatique MAS Modèle 1938/39, successfully underwent rigorous testing and was approved as the Fusil automatique Modèle 1940, two months after the beginning of WWII!

The Fusil Modèle 1949
The Fusil Modèle 1949 was similar to the Modèle 1944 but featured a finely adjustable rear sight, modifications to the bolt, receiver, grenade launching system, stock, handguard and fittings and the bayonet was eliminated. (Rock Island Auction Co.)

All weapon development at French arsenals ended with the German conquest of France, and it was not until January 1945 that the (now) Fusil automatique de 7,5mm Modèle 1944 was restarted at St-Etienne.

rear sight and the scope mounting rail
Visible here are the Modèle 1949’s finely adjustable rear sight and the scope mounting rail on the receiver. (Liberty Tree Collectors)

The Modèle 1944 differed from the Modèle 1940 in a number of ways. First of all, the five-round magazine was replaced by a detachable 10-round magazine that could be refilled with chargers, and several internal components and fittings were redesigned and/or strengthened. Only 6,200 rifles were produced, the majority of which went to the French navy.

The Modèle 1949’s grenade launcher
The Modèle 1949’s grenade launcher sight was mounted on the upper band. (Rock Island Auction Co.)

Note: the Modèle 1944 was the first standard issue French rifle to include a manual safety. A lever on the right side of the receiver at the front of the trigger guard was rotated 90° to the rear to put the rifle on “safe” and could conveniently be rotated to the “off” position by the shooter.

Fusil Modèle 1949 rifles fitted with telescopic sights
French Vietnamese soldiers with Fusil Modèle 1949 rifles fitted with telescopic sights.

Service in the fighting in Tonkin showed the need for several modifications and the resulting Modèle 1944 Type A featured minor changes to the gas system and internal components in addition to a modified rear sight, a rail on the receiver for mounting a telescopic sight and deletion of the bayonet.

French Commandos Marine
Vietnam, 1952 — French Commandos Marine armed with Modèle 1949 rifles.

A rifle grenade launching sight that was permanently mounted on the left of the upper band near the muzzle. The grenade sight could be adjusted for range by means of a worm gear that was rotated to move the grenade collar forward or back.

French Commandos Marine
Left: French soldiers during the Battle Dien Bien Phu armed with Modèle 1949 rifles. Right: Note the soldier in the foreground has a rifle grenade mounted on his Modèle 1949 rifle.

The Modèle 1944, 1944 Type A and 1949 saw service in Tonkin (French Indochina) with French forces fighting the Communist Viet Minh. When equipped with the Modèle 1953 APXL 806 telescopic sight they earned a reputation as extremely practical sniper rifle.

Le Fusil Semi-Automatique de 7,5mm Modèle 1949/56

As was to be expected, service in Tonkin revealed the need for some changes to the rifle. The resulting Fusil semi-automatique Modèle 1949 had a finely adjustable rear sight, modifications to the bolt, receiver, grenade launching system, stock, handguard and fittings and the bayonet was eliminated. Note the rail for mounting telescopic sights on the left side of the receiver.

Le Fusil Semi-Automatique de 7,5mm Modèle 1949/56

The Modèle 1949 saw service with French forces in the closing days of the war in Tonkin, during the Suez Crisis (1956), Algerian War for Independence (1954–­1962) and various military interventions in France’s former colonies. In excess of 20,000 Modèle 1949s were produced and issued to all branches of the French armed forces.

Le Fusil Semi-Automatique de 7,5mm Modèle 1949/56

In the early 1950s, Syria, a former French protectorate, contracted with MAS for 6,000 Modèle 1949 and 12,000 Modèle 1936 rifles and a production facility to manufacture 7,5mm ammunition. Syrian contract rifles differed from the French service model by having a Modèle 1944 style spike bayonet as well as different stocks and metal parts. They were used until the late 1960s when they were replaced with Soviet AK47 assault rifles.

Fusil Modèle 1949
Fusil Modèle 1949 armed French soldiers and Foreign and Legionnaires serving in Algeria.

In the early 1950s, the French armed forces were using a wide variety of rifles. In addition to the 7,5mm Modèles 1936, 1944 and 1949, numbers of U.S. M1 Garand, M1903 and M1917 rifles, M1 and M1A1 Carbines were in service supplemented with British Lee-Enfields, ex-Wehrmacht Karabiner 98k Mausers and obsolete rifles such as the Lebel and Berthier. Supplying ammunition, spare parts and training for such a variety of weapons was problematic to say the least. The armed forces needed a modern battle rifle and while the Modèle 1949 was well regarded it lacked many “modern” features in addition to not enough of them being available.

launching rifle grenades
French soldiers launching rifle grenades from Modèle 1949/56 rifles.

In 1953, a program was undertaken to design a modern battle rifle using the Modèle 1949 as a starting point. Trials began on modified rifles, the Modèles 1949/54 and 1949/55. The latter met approval and was adopted as the Fusil semi-automatique de 7,5mm Modèle 1949/56.5

firing rifle grenades
These two photos show how violently firing rifle grenades can be.

The Modèle 1949/56 differed in several ways from its predecessors. Most noticeable was a shorter forearm and handguard that exposed the front half of the barrel on which was mounted a folding grenade launching sight that was similar in concept to that of the Modèle 1936 LG51. The exposed barrel was ringed with cannelures around which slides a ring spigot which was positioned depending on the range the grenade was to be launched to.

French army training poster 1
French army training poster for the contract Modèle 1949 rifle.

The gas port bushing on the barrel was moved forward and the gas tube lengthened. The gas shutoff valve was hinged to the front of the bushing and, when raised, activated a gas shutoff allowing the launching of heavier 22mm NATO standard rifle grenades without damaging the rifle.6 A muzzle brake/flash hider with dual slots was fitted to the muzzle, but was replaced in 1963 with one having a number of small holes.

French army training poster 2
French army training poster for the contract Modèle 1949 rifle.

A simplified rear sight was fitted and the post front sight was mounted behind the launcher collar and protected by guards. Two styles of knife bayonets with 8.7 and 7.9 inch blades were unique in having muzzle rings at the front and rear of the grip.7

Syrian contract Modèle 1949
The Syrian contract Modèle 1949 had Modèle 1944 style bayonets. (Courtesy Century International Arms)

The rifle was usually issued with a night sight that consisted of a tubular unit that was slipped over the muzzle and secured with a wing nut. It had a blade front sight and square notch rear sight both of which had luminescent inserts for alignment in low light conditions.

Syrian contract Modèle 1949
French army snipers equipped with Modèle 1949 rifles with telescopic sights.

The Modèle 1949/56 was the primary rifle of French forces during the Algerian War of Independence where it earned a reputation as a rugged, reliable and accurate weapon. When equipped with a Modèle 1953 APXL 806 telescopic sight, it was often used in the sniper and designated marksman roles.

short forearm and exposed barrel
The Fusil semi-automatique de Modèle 1949/56 is immediately identifiable by its short forearm and exposed barrel. Note the slip-on rubber recoil pad that reduced stock damage when firing rifle grenades. (Rock Island Auction Co.)

To increase the rifle’s firepower, French armorers sometimes welded two magazines together head to tail or modified the 25- and 35-round magazines of the Fusil Mitrailleur Modèle 1924/29 and Mitrailleuse MAC Modéle 1931 to work in the rifle.8

ten-round magazine
The ten-round magazine of the Modèles 1944, 1949 and 1949/56 were all loaded with two five round chargers. (Becky Scarlata photo).

All manufacture took place at Manufacture d’Armes de St-Étienne and in excess of 275,000 rifles were produced by 1965.

The MAS 1949/56
The MAS 1949/56 had an aperture rear sight that was finely adjustable for distance and windage. (Courtesy Morphy Auctions - www.morphyauctions.com)

The Modèle 1949/56 was the main battle rifle of the French armed forces and saw wide service in Africa, Asia and the Middle East until replaced by the 5,56mm Fusil d’Assault F-1 MAS beginning in 1976.

longer gas tube
The Modèle 1949/56 utilized a longer gas tube and a gas shutoff valve for launching rifle grenades.

Thousands of Modèles 1949 and 1949/56 were supplied to more than twenty-five of France’s former colonies, protectorates and allies where some are still seeing service today.9

end of the Modèle 1949/56’s gas tube
The end of the Modèle 1949/56’s gas tube directs gas directly into a recess in the bolt carrier, forcing it to the rear. (Becky Scarlata photo)

Those who have read my earlier Firearms News reports on the Berdan, Lebel and Berthier rifles will know that France was a major source of weaponry for Abyssinia/Ethiopia from the 1880s until the 1980s. Uli Wiegand, the honcho at Royal Tiger Imports (RoyalTigerImports.com) recently traveled to Ethiopia and discovered a treasure trove of military surplus rifles that the Ethiopian government had acquired from France and other nations.

grenade launching sight
The Modèle 1949/56 grenade launching sight was hinged up to adjust for range. Note the shut off valve on the gas block in the up (closed) position. (GunsInternational.com)

These run the gamut from French Modéle 1874 Gras rifles up to U.S. M1 Carbines and M1 Garands. Included in this windfall were —­ among others —­ German, Czech and Belgian Mausers, Austrian Mannlichers, British Lee-Enfields, Italian Carcanos ... and a number of ex-French Fusils semi-automatique de 7,5mm Modèle 1949/56.

Modèle 49/56's and 58’s bayonets
Left: The Modèle 49/56’s bayonet was unique in having dual muzzle rings. This is the first version with the longer false edge. (EBayonet.com) Right: The Modèle 58 bayonet’s blade was simplified and it was issued with a different scabbard. (www.ebayo-net.com)

Being I am always searching for interesting firearms to use in my Firearms News articles, when I saw Modèle 1949/56s on Royal Tiger’s website I lost no time dispatching an email to Herr —­ or should I say “Monsieur”? —­ Wiegand requesting one to evaluate for our readers. Uli informed me that he was reconditioning a number of Modèle 1949/56s and said I would receive one as soon as they were completed.

muzzle-mounted unit
For fighting in low light conditions the Modèle 1949/56 could be equipped with a muzzle-mounted unit that included a muzzle brake and adjustable front and rear sights. (Courtesy Morphy Auctions, MorphyAuctions.com)

The rifle I received was in excellent condition with an unmarked stock, the metal parts were refinished to “like new” condition and none of the markings had been scrubbed off.

muzzle-mounted unit
For fighting in low light conditions the Modèle 1949/56 could be equipped with a muzzle-mounted unit that included a muzzle brake and adjustable front and rear sights. (Courtesy Morphy Auctions, MorphyAuctions.com)

Upon disassembling it I discovered that all the internal components were also in excellent shape showing little signs of wear but when I looked down the barrel I thought at first that it was corroded ... but I was mistaken. A good scrubbing with bore solvent and a copper brush revealed a worn, but clean, bore but with plenty of rifling still in evidence.

Modèle 1953 APXL 806 telescopic sight
For fighting in low light conditions the Modèle 1949/56 could be equipped with a muzzle-mounted unit that included a muzzle brake and adjustable front and rear sights. (Courtesy Morphy Auctions, MorphyAuctions.com)

For test firing purposes, Marta Borkowska at PPU-USA sent me a supply of their 7.5x54 French cartridges that are made in Serbia and utilized boxer primed, reloadable, brass cases.

helicopter
Modèle 1949/56 rifle were often equipped with a Modèle 1953 APXL 806 telescopic sight for use in the sniper role.

As I continue to have a strong aversion to recoil, test firing was performed from a Caldwell Lead Sled on my club’s 50- and 100-yard ranges. My good friend Patrick Hernandez provided some original French chargers (stripper clips) which help me load the rifle’s ten round magazine.

Algeria
French soldiers and Legionnaires, armed with Modèle 1949/56 rifles fighting rebels in Algeria.

I fired three, five shot groups at each distance and, much to my delight, the rifle shot to point of aim from the get-go and I only had to make a few minor windage adjustments. It fed rounds smoothly and ejected spent cases violently. In fact Becky, who was taking photos about twenty feet away, complained that she was struck by two of them!

Chad, 1971
Chad, 1971 — Foreign Legionnaires serving in Chad. The Legionnaire in front has a Fusil à Répétition modèle F1 sniper rifle while the rest are equipped with Modèle 1949/56 rifles.

At 50 yards, my groups averaged 2.75 inches and at 100 yards all were under four inches. In the last few months, I have fired several French military rifles, all of WWI origin, and they performed better than I would have expected.

Algeria
French soldiers and Legionnaires, armed with Modèle 1949/56 rifles fighting rebels in Algeria.

My only real complaint was that the rear sight aperture was rather small which, combined with the front sight guards, reducing peripheral vision, preventing me from seeing what was on either side of the target. While this might be useful for target shooting, I feel it would be disadvantageous in combat.

France’s ceremonial Garde Republicaine
Members of France’s ceremonial Garde Republicaine armed with Modèle 1949/56 rifles.

Other than that, I don’t have anything negative to say about the Modèle 1949/56 ... well, maybe except for its weight. No doubt my lightweight AR carbines have spoiled me?

5.56mm Fusil d’Assault F1 MAS
In 1976, France replaced the Modèle 1949/56 rifle with the 5.56mm Fusil d’Assault F1 MAS. (Leroy Thompson photo)

I would like to thank the following for providing information and materials used to prepare this report: Uli Wiegand, Joe Kolander, Buddy Hinton, Jean Huon, Vince DiNardi, Tasha Lopez, Leroy Thompson, Marta Borkowska, Danielle Smith, Dennis Ottobre, Rock Island Auction Co., Morphy Auctions, Liberty Tree Collectors, Century International Arms, GunsInternational.com and PPU-USA Ammunition.

Algerian soldiers and Eritrean rebels
Algerian soldiers armed with Modèle 1949/56 rifles.

Fusil Automatique de 7,5MM Modèle 1944 Type A

  • Caliber: 7,5mm balle Modèle 1929 C
  • Overall Length: 42.3 in.
  • Barrel Length: 22.8 in.
  • Weight: 9.7 lbs.
  • Magazine: 10 rd. charger loaded
  • Sights: Front: Hooded blade
  • Rear: Aperture adj. from 200 to 1,200 meters and for windage
  • Stock: Wood
  • Bayonet: 13 in. cruciform rod 10
PPU 7.5x54 French ammunition
Eritrean rebels cleaning their Modèle 1949/56 rifles.

Want to buy one?

Parts:

five round chargers
Test firing was performed with PPU 7.5x54 French ammunition.

Fusil Semi-Automatique de 7,5MM Modèle 1949

  • Caliber: 7,5mm balle Modèle 1929 C
  • Overall Length: 43.35 in.
  • Barrel Length: 22.8 in.
  • Weight: 9.4 lbs.
  • Magazine: 10 rd. charger loaded
  • Sights: Front: Blade
  • Rear: Aperture adj. from 200 to 1,200 meters and for windage
  • Stock: Wood
  • Bayonet: 13 in. cruciform rod
targets
Loading with five-round chargers was fairly straightforward. (Becky Scarlata photo)

Want to buy one?

Parts:

test firing
Sample targets fired at 50 and 100 yards were impressive. (Becky Scarlata photo)

Fusil Semi-Automatique de 7,5MM Modèle 1949/56

  • Caliber: 7,5mm balle Modèle 1929 C
  • Overall Length: 40 in.
  • Barrel Length: 19.7 in.
  • Weight: 9.64 lbs.
  • Magazine: 10 rd. charger loaded
  • Sights: Front: Tapered post: Rear: Aperture adj. from 200 to 1,200 meters and for windage
  • Stock: Wood
  • Bayonet: 8.7 in. blade
well balanced
Test firing was performed from a Caldwell Lead Sled rifle rest. (Becky Scarlata photo)

Want to buy one?

well balanced
The Modèle 1949/56 was a well balanced, fine handling rifle. (Becky Scarlata photo)

Parts:


Rifle Grenades

Fusil a Répétition de 7,5mm Modèle 1936 LG51 Grenade Launcher and Sight
The Fusil a Répétition de 7,5mm Modèle 1936 LG51 featured a permanently mounted grenade launcher and sight. (GunsInternational.com)

The post-­WWII French army was a strong advocate of the rifle grenade and in 1948 trials resulted in the adoption of the Fusil a Répétition de 7,5mm Modèle 1936 LG48 (LG —­ lanceur de grenade — grenade launcher) and, three years later, the Fusil a Répétition de 7,5mm Modèle 1936 LG51.

The Fusil a Répétition de 7,5mm Modèle 1936 LG51 featured a permanently mounted grenade launcher and sight. (GunsInternational.com)The practice was for each French infantry squad to have one or two grenadiers equipped with the MAS 1936 LG48 or LG51 rifles, while the rest of the soldiers carried standard rifles.

Both had grenade launchers permanently attached to the muzzle end of their barrels and pivoting grenade sights mounted on the left side (LG48), or top (LG51) of the forearm which could be folded down into cutouts in the upper handguard.

The Fusil Modèle 1936 LG48 used standard 48mm rifle grenades, while the LG51 accepted all NATO standard 22mm antipersonnel and antitank rifle grenades. A slip-­on rubber recoil pad was used to protect the rifle’s buttstock when it was placed on the ground while launching grenades.

The LG48 launcher is folded up to a 45° angle and the knurled worm gear on its left is used to adjust the collar for the desired range. After removing the magazine and any live cartridge from the chamber a grenade-launching cartridge is inserted into the chamber. The shooter uses the U-notch rear and blade front sight on the launcher arm to aim the rifle and the grenade is fired.

The LG51 launcher sight is locked at 45° to shoot antipersonnel grenades at ranges from 100 to 400 meters with 20-­meter increments, range adjusted by locating the sliding ring to the proper distance. The rifle is then lined up with the target by using the front and rear sights located on the left of the launcher sight, shooter must keep the sight horizontal for the range to be correct.

For direct shooting of antitank or multipurpose grenades, the sight is locked at 90° the range ring is all the way down and the rifle is sighted with the tip of the grenade lined up with the target and the correct distance chevron, from the top 100, 75 and 50 meters for antitank grenade and bottom chevron is 120 meters for multipurpose grenade.

While numbers of Fusils Modèle 1944 and 1949 were equipped with grenade launching sights similar to those on the Modèle 1936 LG48, it was discovered that repeated launching of grenades from them damaged the rifles and so Modèles 1936 LG51 remained in service.


About the Author

Paul Scarlata began writing articles for various gun magazines in the 1990s. Over the years he has contributed to firearms and military history publications in the U.S. and a number of foreign countries, has had three books on military firearms published and just finished writing a fourth. He became a regular contributor to Shotgun News, forerunner of the Firearms News, in 2010, eventually becoming a staff member where he specializes writing about military small arms from 1850s to present day. His wife Becky, an excellent photographer, has been a major plus to "their" careers.


If you have any thoughts or comments on this article, we’d love to hear them. Email us at FirearmsNews@OutdoorSG.com.

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